AEROBIC AND RESISTANCE TRAINING
Aerobic exercise increases the amount of oxygen delivered to the muscles and allow them to work for longer. Any activity that increases the heart rate for longer periods of time will ultimately lead to an improved physical condition.
The benefits of Aerobic Exercise include an increase in:
Blood supply to the heat and muscles
Efficient use of oxygen
Mood & self esteem
Risk of diabetes
Risk of developing cardiovascular disease
Risk of developing cancers
Depression & anxiety
As your physical condition improves, after aerobic exercises you will start you notice that there are changes in your breathing and circulation; there will be no more shortness of breath or feeling like your heart wants to explode out of your chest. Many aerobic exercises will also cause an increase in muscle strength and flexibility.
Types of Aerobic Exercise
One of the easiest aerobic exercises is walking; no special equipment is required and can be done anywhere. To resemble an aerobic exercise, walking has to be fast, to increase the pulse and respiration, but not too fast that it is uncomfortable. Other aerobic activities include, Aerobic / body conditioning classes, running / jogging, cycling, swimming, rowing, skipping, and some sports (tennis, soccer etc…)
To maximize the effects of aerobic exercise it is best to initially start with a brief warm up, such as walking or stationary bike and then some stretching. Thereafter it’s recommended:
- Moderate activity for 30 minutes a day, 5 or more days per week.
- Moderate activity equivalent to brisk walking.
- Strenuous exercise for 20 minutes a day, at least 3 times a week.
- Intense exercises that require 70% or more of maximum heart rate.
Effect of Aerobic Exercise
To get the benefit of your health it is indicated that you work at a moderate effort, the heart rate should be between 50 and 70% of the maximum possible value, or at a pace that appear shortness of breath.
You can determine the pulse rate during exercise. As aerobic exercise are more often will notice a decrease in pulse exercises that were once accompanied by higher pulse. It is a sign of better physical condition.
This is strength training using resistance to induce muscular contraction, which builds strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of muscles, this way you can increasingly lift heavier loads without fatiguing so quickly. Making stronger muscles also leads to joint protection.
The Benefits of Resistance Training include increases in:
- Muscular strength and endurance;
- Muscle mass;
- Consumption of calories;
- Bone mineral density;
- Health in general.
- Body fat;
- Psychological stress.
Types of Resistance Training
Muscles become stronger through a process in 3 steps
- Muscular stress/ fatigue – tearing / breaking down of muscle fibres
- Rest of the muscles – rebuilding /repair of muscle fibres (recovery)
- Repeated muscular stress.
When muscles contract against a resistance, muscles are under stress, but not too heavy as to cause muscle injury. When relaxing; the body rebuilds muscle and connective tissue of the muscle (joints, tendons, ligaments) so that they are ready for a new effort. When stressing the same muscles repeatedly, it will become stronger and stronger.
Exercises that create resistance include:
- Body weight: Push ups, leg lifts, pull ups etc…
- Resistance exercises with resistance bands
- Weight lifting with barbells and dumbbell weights.
Before starting exercises with weights, take a few minutes to warm up, like a walk or a run for a few minutes. Some muscle stretching exercises also need to be done.
As muscle strength increases, the weight / load will need to be increased. Increasing muscle endurance is measured by the ability to do more repetitions in a given time and increasing muscular strength is the ability to lift a heavier load. Improved body composition is an important outcome of resistance training: The amount of lean muscle tissue will increase, the amount of fat tissue will decrease, and thus the ratio of lean to fat will improve.
by Manuella Myburgh